Save a Karankawa Settlement!

Native Americans and Local Residents sue Army Corps of Engineers!

Quick Overview:

ENBRIDGE formerly known as Moda Midstream, a company that deals in petrochemicals, is building a pier and oil export terminal over the eastern portion of a Karankawa village site off Corpus Christi Bay in Ingleside, Texas. The pier will destroy Karankawa artifacts and the environmentally rich marshlands.

Learn more:

To learn more about the ENBRIDGE expansion and its impact on local health, marine life, and air quality, please CLICK our webinar below, that was held on June 17th, 2021 by Indigenous People of the Coastal Bend and Ingleside on the Bay Coastal Watch. 

How to Help:

Follow our two local non-profits and consider donating:

Indigenous People of  the Coastal Bend
Donate- Cash App: $IndigneousPeople361 -OR-
Ingleside on the Bay Coastal Watch Association

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ENBRIDGE proposed expansion in Corpus Christi is a threat to community health, wildlife, & an indigenous sacred site. Click on the website link to learn more about what the Indigenous People of the Coastal Bend & Ingleside on the Bay Coastal Watch Association are doing to STOP ENBRIDGE NOW!

ENBRIDGE wants to expand its polluting oil export facility onto a Karankawa sacred site. This project trashes the community, past & present. Join to Stop ENBRIDGE!

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ENBRIDGE WILL BE exporting 25% of the nation’s crude oil and now they want to expand their polluting facility in Corpus Christi. This expansion further threatens community health and wildlife and would desecrate a Karankawa sacred site. The Indigenous People of the Coastal Bend & the Ingleside on the Bay Coastal Watch Association held a webinar June 17th.To learn more and get involved. Click here:

Draft an Action Alert:

Dear friend, 

The Gulf Coast is under attack by the fossil fuel industry. Not only are companies racing to build new export facilities, but they are also trying to expand the existing polluting infrastructure. In Corpus Christi Texas, ENBRIDGE plans to expand its Moda Ingleside Energy Center, desecrating the local community, wildlife, and a Karankawa sacred site, to profit from increased crude oil exports.

Corpus Christi is already one of the nation’s hubs for crude oil exports, and the local community and wildlife are suffering the impacts. The ENBRIDGE terminal will account for 25% of the nation’s exports causing significantly higher air pollutants in neighborhoods near the facility.  The plumes from previous dredging and ship traffic have also already caused silting of seagrass. 

Write to your representatives asking them to Stop ENBRIDGE! 

The proposed expansion of ENBRIDGE Ingleside Energy Center would further devastate wildlife, community health, and increase climate pollution.  Also in the path of  ENBRIDGE’s proposed expansion is McGloin’s Bluff, a known heritage site of the Karankawa Tribe, the original people of the region. There are over 39,000 shards of pottery, 11 fragments of ceramic pipes, 103 arrow points, and a variety of other items specific to the Karankawa culture and way of life located on the site. This cultural heritage of the original native people of Texas must be protected, yet the Indigenous People of the Coastal Bend have not been consulted regarding the proposed industrial development. 

On June 17th at 7 pm The Indigenous People of the Coastal Bend & the Ingleside on the Bay Coastal Watch Association the groups held a Stop Moda Now webinar to discuss the proposed expansion! In this time of climate catastrophe, we need to make sure these polluting facilities are shut down, not expanded! 

In solidarity,

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Other related actions that need IMMEDIATE ATTENTION:

NO current permits have been submitted by any industry!

Currently, several groups are in litigation. Please look out for Press Releases from CAPE or other environmental groups in the Corpus Christi Bay Area!

A History of the McGloin Bluff Karankawa Settlement:

From roughly the 1300s to the 1700s, Karankawa Indians repeatedly inhabited what is today known as McGloin Bluff. Archaeological evidence indicates that these First peoples established a settlement around four football fields in length along Corpus Christi Bay. Around 250 years later, in 1957, an unknown individual told archaeologist James E. Corbin of “an Indian mound in the area.” When Corbin investigated the area, he located an abundance of artifacts (ultimately more than 3000) resting on the surface. Thereafter the site was given the Smithsonian trinomial 41SP11, or state number 41 (Texas), county (San Patricio), and county site number (11). From 1987 to 1992, the U.S. Navy constructed a base next to this former Karankawa settlement and almost inevitably built over the eastern-most portion of this seasonal village. 

In 2004, archaeologist Robert Ricklis and his team completed an extensive survey of the western portion of the McGloin Bluff site at the behest of the Corpus Christi Port Authority, which owns most of the land. Ricklis found an incredible number of artifacts, so many, in fact, that the site was recommended for listing on the National Registry of Historic Places and as a Texas State Archaeological Landmark. 41SP11 west achieved TSAL recognition. 

In 2006, Ricklis and team decided to survey the remaining eastern portion of the McGloin Bluff settlement. They found a good number of artifacts, but the western portion by comparison had nearly 10 times more items. Ricklis concluded that the eastern side was not eligible for the same protections as the western side. Around this time, the U.S. government decided to move the Ingleside Naval Base to San Diego. This process of transporting battle cruisers, aircraft, and personnel took five years, and when that was achieved, the government gave the property back to the Corpus Christi Port Authority. 

In 2008, the Port of Corpus Christi, likely recognizing that they would have to put the McGloin Bluff property up for sale because of the military base’s relocation, requested a “data recovery” of the western part of the uncovered Karankawa village. The purpose of a data recovery is to gather all possible artifacts and faunal remains and to store these objects at universities and other labs for future study. TRC Environmental Corporation unearthed 40,000 artifacts, more than 100 arrowheads, “thousands” of animal bones/otoliths, and a handful of material of European origin. 

When the data recovery project was formally completed in 2010, the Texas Historical Commission informed the Port of Corpus Christi that “all of the 423-acre property inclusive of 41SP11 has been cleared for construction.” That same year, the Port sold the former naval base to Occidental Petroleum (OP). OP’s property includes a section of the eastern McGloin Bluff Karankawa site. In 2018, Moda Midstream acquired the Ingleside property from OP. In January 2019, Moda announced pier and terminal upgrades that involved the destruction of the eastern portion of the McGloin Bluff Karankawa settlement—a location that assuredly still holds a sizeable number of artifacts. 

If you can contribute to this history, please reach out to For an event timeline of all of the sources in relation to 41SP11, see